There are about sixty different verses in the Holy Quran which refer to Mountains or Peaks in different contexts.Upon a closer study five common themes are revealed under which mountains have been quoted, referenced or discussed.
Theme I – In relevance to Prophets (10 Verses)
There are at least ten verses in Holy Quran in which mountains have been quoted with reference to specific Prophets. This includes Prophet Ibrahim (far distance of hills to bring back birds from there), Prophet Noah (for height of mountains to save from flood), Prophet Daud (with relation to skill and empowerment), Prophet Suleiman (praise and empowerment ), Prophet Moses and in case of (Jesus and Mary) mountains / high ground have been used with reference to their security and well-being.
Theme II – Symbols of Power and Magnanimity (10 Verses)
In ten different verses of Holy Quran mountains has been referred as symbols of power and magnanimity of their creator.
Theme III – Utility and Benefits (12 Verses)
There are twelve verses hinting and elaborating towards the benefits or the usefulness of the mountains. This includes the biological / environmental benefits of mountains as habitat for natural life (bees) and more importantly as key geological structures standing fixed and firmed and holding the earth in place (like pegs).
Theme IV – People /Mankind (6 Verses)
There are six verses about people specifically and mankind in general. This includes reference of previous people who were highly skilled in carving out mountains etc.
Theme V – End of Times (19 Verses)
Most elaborate mention of mountains in Holy Quran has been referred in nineteen different verses about resurrection and Qayamah. These verses describe the scattering of mountains like dust and wool and their disintegration in final hours.
Each of these themes are elaborated below.
Theme I – In Relevance with Prophets (10 Verses)
Behold! Abraham said: “My Lord! Show me how Thou givest life to the dead.” He said: “Dost thou not then believe?” He said: “Yea! but to satisfy My own undertaking.” He said: “Take four birds; Tame them to turn to thee; put a portion of them on every hill and call to them: They will come to thee (Flying) with speed. Then know that Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
(Surah Al-Baqara, 260)
Then followed he (another) way, Until, when he reached (a tract) between two mountains, he found, beneath them, a people who scarcely understood a word.
(Surah Al-Kahf, 92- 93)
So the Ark floated with them on the waves (towering) like mountains, and Noah called out to his son, who had separated himself (from the rest): “O my son! embark with us, and be not with the unbelievers!” The son replied: “I will betake myself to some mountain: it will save me from the water.” Noah said: “This day nothing can save, from the command of Allah, any but those on whom He hath mercy! “And the waves came between them, and the son was among those overwhelmed in the Flood
(Surah Hud, 42-43)
“Bring me blocks of iron.” At length, when he had filled up the space between the two steep mountain-sides, He said, “Blow (with your bellows)” Then, when he had made it (red) as fire, he said: “Bring me, that I may pour over it, molten lead.”
(Surah Al-Kahf, 96)
We bestowed Grace aforetime on David from ourselves: “O ye Mountains! Sing ye back the Praises of Allah with him! and ye birds (also)! And We made the iron soft for him
(Surah Saba’, 10)
To Solomon We inspired the (right) understanding of the matter: to each (of them) We gave Judgment and Knowledge; it was Our power that made the hills and the birds celebrate Our praises, with David: it was We Who did (all these things).
(Surah Al-Anbiya’, 79)
When Moses came to the place appointed by Us, and his Lord addressed him, He said: “O my Lord! show (Thyself) to me, that I may look upon thee.” Allah said: “By no means canst thou see Me (direct); But look upon the mount; if it abide in its place, then shalt thou see Me.” When his Lord manifested His glory on the Mount, He made it as dust. And Moses fell down in a swoon. When he recovered his senses he said: “Glory be to Thee! to Thee I turn in repentance, and I am the first to believe.
(Surah Al-A‘raf, 143)
And We made the son of Mary and his mother as a Sign: We gave them both shelter on high ground, affording rest and security and furnished with springs.
(Surah Al-Muminun, 50)
Theme II –As Symbols of His Power and Magnanimity(10 Verses)
If there were a Qur’an with which mountains were moved, or the earth were cloven asunder, or the dead were made to speak, (this would be the one!) But, truly, the command is with Allah in all things! Do not the Believers know, that, had Allah (so) willed, He could have guided all mankind (to the right)? But the Unbelievers,- never will disaster cease to seize them for their (ill) deeds, or to settle close to their homes, until the promise of Allah come to pass, for, verily, Allah will not fail in His promise.
(Surah Ar-Ra‘d, 31)
When We shook the Mount over them, as if it had been a canopy, and they thought it was going to fall on them (We said): “Hold firmly to what We have given you, and bring (ever) to remembrance what is therein; perchance ye may fear Allah.”
(Surah Al-A‘raf, 171)
It was We that made the hills declare, in unison with him, Our Praises, at eventide and at break of day,
(Surah Sâd, 18)
Mighty indeed were the plots which they made, but their plots were (well) within the sight of Allah, even though they were such as to shake the hills!
(Surah İbrahim, 46)
Seest thou not that to Allah bow down in worship all things that are in the heavens and on earth,- the sun, the moon, the stars; the hills, the trees, the animals; and a great number among mankind? But a great number are (also) such as are fit for Punishment: and such as Allah shall disgrace,- None can raise to honour: for Allah carries out all that He wills.
(Surah Al-Hajj, 18)
And it is He who spread out the earth, and set thereon mountains standing firm and (flowing) rivers: and fruit of every kind He made in pairs, two and two: He draweth the night as a veil o’er the Day.Behold, verily in these things there are signs for those who consider
(Surah Ar-Ra‘d, 3)
Thou seest the mountains and thinkest them firmly fixed: but they shall pass away as the clouds pass away: (such is) the artistry of Allah, who disposes of all things in perfect order: for he is well acquainted with all that ye do. `
(Surah An-Naml, 88)
Or, Who has made the earth firm to live in; made rivers in its midst; set thereon mountains immovable; and made a separating bar between the two bodies of flowing water? (can there be another) god besides Allah. Nay, most of them know not.
(Surah An-Naml, 61)
And His are the Ships sailing smoothly through the seas, lofty as mountains:
(Surah Ar-Rahman, 24)
And among His Signs are the ships, smooth-running through the ocean, (tall) as mountains.
(Surah Ash-Shura, 32)
Theme III – Utility and Benefits of Mountains (15 Verses)
And thy Lord taught the Bee to build its cells in hills, on trees, and in (men’s) habitations;
(Surah An-Nahl, 68)
And He has set up on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and rivers and roads; that ye may guide yourselves;
(Surah An-Nahl, 15)
It is Allah Who made out of the things He created, some things to give you shade; of the hills He made some for your shelter; He made you garments to protect you from heat, and coats of mail to protect you from your (mutual) violence. Thus does He complete His favours on you, that ye may bow to His Will (in Islam).
(Surah An-Nahl, 81)
Have We not made the earth as a wide expanse,
(Surah An-Naba’, 6)
And made therein mountains standing firm, lofty (in stature); and provided for you water sweet (and wholesome)?
(Surah Al-Mursalat, 27)
And at the Mountains, how they are fixed firm?
(Surah Al-Ghashiyya, 19)
And the mountains hath He firmly fixed;
(Surah An-Nazi‘at, 32)
And We have set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with them, and We have made therein broad highways (between mountains) for them to pass through: that they may receive Guidance.
(Surah Al-Anbiya’, 31)
And the earth- We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and produced therein every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs)
(Surah Qaf, 7)
And the mountains as pegs?
(Surah An-Naba’, 7)
Seest thou not that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap? – then wilt thou see rain issue forth from their midst. And He sends down from the sky mountain masses (of clouds) wherein is hail: He strikes therewith whom He pleases and He turns it away from whom He pleases, the vivid flash of His lightning well-nigh blinds the sight.
(Surah An-Nur, 43)
Seest thou not that Allah sends down rain from the sky? With it We then bring out produce of various colours. And in the mountains are tracts white and red, of various shades of colour, and black intense in hue.
(Surah Fatir, 27)
And the earth We have spread out (like a carpet); set thereon mountains firm and immovable; and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance.
(Surah Al-Hijr, 19)
He created the heavens without any pillars that ye can see; He set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and He scattered through it beasts of all kinds. We send down rain from the sky, and produce on the earth every kind of noble creature, in pairs.
(Surah Luqman, 10)
He set on the (earth), mountains standing firm, high above it, and bestowed blessings on the earth, and measure therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion, in four Days, in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (Sustenance).
(Surah Fussilat, 10)
Theme IV – In relationship to People / Mankind (6 Verses)
Had We sent down this Qur’an on a mountain, verily, thou wouldst have seen it humble itself and cleave asunder for fear of Allah. Such are the similitudes which We propound to men, that they may reflect.
(Surah Al-Hashr, 21)
We did indeed offer the Trust to the Heavens and the Earth and the Mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: but man undertook it; He was indeed unjust and foolish;
(Surah Al-Ahzab, 72)
Nor walk on the earth with insolence: for thou canst not rend the earth asunder, nor reach the mountains in height.
(Surah Al-Isra’, 37)
“And remember how He made you inheritors after the ‘Ad people and gave you habitations in the land: ye build for yourselves palaces and castles in (open) plains, and carve out homes in the mountains; so bring to remembrance the benefits (ye have received) from Allah, and refrain from evil and mischief on the earth.”
(Surah Al-A‘raf, 74)
“And ye carve houses out of (rocky) mountains with great skill.
(Surah Ash-Shu‘ara’, 149)
Out of the mountains did they hew (their) edifices, (feeling themselves) secure.
(Surah Al-Hijr, 82)
Theme V-End of Times (19 Verses)
They ask thee concerning the Mountains: say, “My Lord will uproot them and scatter them as dust;
(Surah Ta Ha, 105)
Then, when one blast is sounded on the Trumpet, And the earth is moved, and its mountains, and they are crushed to powder at one stroke,
(Surah Al-Haqqa, 13-14)
(It is) a Day whereon men will be like moths scattered about, And the mountains will be like carded wool.
(Surah Al-Qari‘a, 4-5)
When the earth shall be shaken to its depths And the mountains shall be crumbled to atoms.
(Surah Al-Waqi‘a, 4-5)
One Day the earth and the mountains will be in violent commotion. And the mountains will be as a heap of sand poured out and flowing down.
(Surah Al-Muzzammil, 14)
When the mountains are scattered (to the winds) as dust;
(Surah Al-Mursalat, 10)
The Day that the sky will be like molten brass and the mountains will be like wool.
(Surah Al-Ma‘arij, 8-9)
The Day that the Trumpet shall be sounded, and ye shall come forth in crowds; And the heavens shall be opened as if there were doors, And the mountains shall vanish, as if they were a mirage.
(Surah An-Naba’, 18-19-20)
When the mountains vanish (like a mirage);
(Surah At-Takwir, 3)
One Day We shall remove the mountains, and thou wilt see the earth as a level stretch, and We shall gather them, all together, nor shall We leave out any one of them.
(Surah Al-Kahf, 47)
At it the skies are ready to burst, the earth to split asunder, and the mountains to fall down in utter ruin.
(Surah Maryam, 90)
On the Day when the firmament will be in dreadful commotion. And the mountains will fly hither and thither.
(Surah At-Tur, 9-10)
The context of the word ” mountain” in Holy Quran thus varies . Sometimes it is used as proof of magnanimity of creator, other times it is linked with the end of times and some times mountains are used as power and symbol of greatness. However one thing needs to be kept in mind, these verses are not for geographical or informational purpose alone. Like remaining Holy Quran they are for the guidance and reflection of mankind. A common theme from this subject is to add and look study mountains and ponder upon their creation, purpose, demise and hence strengthen our relation with Allah.
P.S : Author is not an expert in Quranic Studies and hence any corrections if required will be welcomed.
Source: www. quranindex.net